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Vitalik Buterin: Supporting Decentralized Staking through Anti-Correlation Incentives | IDOs News

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Vitalik proposes anti-correlation incentives to promote decentralization in staking protocols, penalizing misbehaving actors and implementing them in various scenarios, backed by empirical data.

Vitalik Buterin recently published a thought-provoking article that delves into the concept of supporting decentralized staking through the use of anti-correlation incentives. Authored by Vitalik Buterin, the article offers preliminary research and encourages independent replication attempts to validate the proposed ideas.

The primary focus of the article is to address the challenge of incentivizing better decentralization within staking protocols. The author suggests that penalizing correlations among actors can be an effective mechanism to encourage a more distributed and resilient ecosystem.

The current approach in Ethereum’s slashing mechanics already incorporates an element of anti-correlation incentives. However, the article argues that relying solely on edge-case incentives, which may only arise in highly exceptional attack situations, might not be sufficient to drive decentralization.

To further enhance anti-correlation incentives, the article proposes extending this concept to address more common failures, such as missing attestations. It posits that larger stakers, including wealthy individuals and staking pools, often run multiple validators on the same internet connection or physical computer, leading to correlated failures. The article acknowledges that expecting these stakeholders to set up independent physical setups for each validator would eliminate economies of scale in staking.

To validate the hypothesis, the author combines attestation data from recent epochs with information mapping validator IDs to publicly-known clusters. By analyzing the occurrences of co-failures (instances where two validators within the same cluster fail during the same slot), the article provides empirical evidence of excess correlated failures within clusters. This data supports the notion that validators in the same cluster are more likely to miss attestations simultaneously compared to validators in different clusters.

Building upon this analysis, the article proposes a penalty mechanism based on the current number of missed slots relative to the average of the last 32 slots. This mechanism ensures that penalties for missed attestations are proportional to the number of validators failing in a given slot compared to recent slots. The article highlights the resilience of this mechanism, as it is not easily manipulable and does not provide incentives for actors to intentionally fail.

The research presented in this article contributes to the ongoing discourse on decentralized staking and provides insights into the potential benefits of anti-correlation incentives. By incentivizing decentralization and mitigating correlated failures, staking protocols can become more robust and resistant to attacks.

It is important to note that the research presented in the article is preliminary, and the author encourages independent replication attempts to support the findings. The code used for the analysis is available on GitHub for reference.

In conclusion, supporting decentralized staking through anti-correlation incentives offers a promising avenue for enhancing protocol decentralization. By penalizing correlations among misbehaving actors, staking protocols can foster a more robust and resilient ecosystem. Further research and experimentation in this area will contribute to the evolution of decentralized blockchain networks like Ethereum.

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Binance Futures Introduces Updates to Taker Program, Offering Fee Discounts | IDOs News

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Binance Futures, the futures trading platform of cryptocurrency exchange Binance, has recently unveiled updates to its Taker Program. These updates aim to offer enhanced benefits to eligible users who engage in trading activities on the platform.

Effective from April 30, 2024, at 00:00 (UTC), eligible users will be able to enjoy a taker fee discount of up to 20% on eligible USDT-margined perpetual and delivery contracts. Additionally, users can take advantage of a promotional taker fee rate of 0.0136% when trading eligible USDC-margined perpetual contracts. This promotional fee rate will be available until July 1, 2024, at 23:59 (UTC).

To participate in the Taker Program, users must reach a total futures trading volume of 100,000,000 USDT equivalent within the last 30 days. Once eligible, users can submit an application for the program at any time. The assessment for eligibility will be conducted during the weekly review of the Taker Program.

Users who have previously applied for the Taker Program are not required to resubmit the application form. Their eligibility will be assessed automatically. The taker fee discount and promotional fee rate will become effective on the following Tuesday at 00:00 (UTC) after the weekly review.

Based on their weekly trading volume and volume share on BTC and ETH pairs, users can qualify for higher taker fee discounts on eligible USDT-margined perpetual and delivery contracts. The table below provides an overview of the fee tiers and their corresponding discounts.

It is important to note that from March 26, 2024, at 00:00 (UTC) to July 1, 2024, at 23:59 (UTC), users who qualify for the Taker Program and achieve a minimum 0.5% weekly taker volume share on USDC-margined perpetual contracts will receive a fee tier upgrade one level higher than their actual qualification. Alternatively, users can qualify for a higher fee tier and corresponding taker fee discount on eligible USDT-margined perpetual and delivery contracts based on their weekly trading volume and volume share on BTC and ETH pairs.

To illustrate, let’s consider User A, who achieves a weekly taker volume of 3,500M USDT equivalent, a 2% weekly taker volume share on BTC and ETH pairs, and a 0.4% weekly taker volume share excluding BTC and ETH pairs on USD‚ìà-M perpetual and delivery contracts from April 22, 2024, at 00:00 (UTC) to April 28, 2024, at 23:59 (UTC). Based on their weekly USD‚ìà-M futures taker volume share on BTC and ETH pairs, User A qualifies for Fee Tier 3.

Consequently, User A will enjoy a 20% taker fee discount on trades made on USDT-margined perpetual and delivery contracts starting from April 30, 2024, at 00:00 (UTC)to July 29, 2024, at 23:59 (UTC). Furthermore, User A will also benefit from the promotional taker fee rate of 0.0136% when trading eligible USDC-margined perpetual contracts during the same period.

Binance Futures continues to enhance its trading experience by providing users with fee discounts and promotional offers through the Taker Program. These updates aim to incentivize traders and provide them with a competitive advantage in the cryptocurrency futures market.

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USA and Nigeria to Discuss Digital Economy and AI Advancements for Economic Growth | IDOs News

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The United States of America (USA) and Nigeria are poised to explore potential partnership opportunities in the digital economy, emerging technology, and the advancement of artificial intelligence (AI). The discussions aim to strengthen economic ties between the two countries and foster deeper collaborations in these areas.

The Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy, Mr. Arthur Brown, announced that high-level U.S. government officials will be in Abuja for a conference under the auspices of the U.S.-Nigeria Bi-National Commission. The conference will provide a platform for both countries to discuss the digital economy, emerging technology, and AI advancements.

During the closing ceremony of a four-day Workshop on National Artificial Intelligence Strategy in Abuja, Mr. Brown highlighted the importance of fostering partnerships and working together to drive robust, resilient, and inclusive economic growth. The United States is ready to work with Nigeria as equal partners in various areas, including talent development, infrastructure, research, and innovation. Mr. Brown also commended Nigeria for its support on the adoption of a landmark United Nations resolution on AI and pledged the U.S. government’s continued partnership with Nigeria on the economy.

Nigeria has shown a growing commitment to AI and emerging technologies in recent years. In November 2020, the country established the National Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (NCAIR), the first of its kind in Africa, marking a major moment for state-level commitment to AI. The NCAIR was established in line with Nigeria’s National Digital Economy Policy and Strategy 2020 – 2030, which listed AI as one of the eight pillars of the country’s digital economy.

Since the establishment of the NCAIR, AI has featured more prominently in government policy efforts. The NCAIR launched programs to equip children with coding and machine learning skills, making them conversant with AI and other emerging technologies. The Nigerian government has also directed the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) to provide AI research grants to tertiary institutions to drive innovation and improve economic resilience.

In March 2023, Nigeria drafted a National AI policy, co-created by the National Information Technology Development Agency and industry experts, to further strengthen its AI commitment. The country has also launched initiatives like the 3 million Technical Talents (3MTT) program and the Nigeria Artificial Intelligence Research Scheme (NAIRS) to train young people in AI and support AI startups and researchers.

The upcoming discussions between the USA and Nigeria present an opportunity for both countries to share knowledge, expertise, and best practices in the digital economy, emerging technology, and AI advancements. By aligning AI governance and ensuring safe, secure, transparent, and trustworthy AI deployment, the partnership aims to drive economic growth and innovation in both nations.

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IRS Introduces New Form 1099-DA for Reporting Income from Digital Asset Transactions | IDOs News

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A preview of the new Form 1099-DA, a tax form that will be used by cryptocurrency brokers to record transactions involving digital assets, has been made available by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) of the United States of America. As part of the continuous efforts of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to enhance compliance and guarantee that taxpayers appropriately report their income from digital assets, this form has been developed.

By the beginning of the year 2025, it is anticipated that Form 1099-DA will be in use. Brokers will be responsible for preparing this form for each client who sells or trades digital assets. According to the form, brokers will be required to disclose certain information, which may include token codes, wallet addresses, and places where blockchain transactions are taking place. It will be possible for the Internal Revenue Service to identify taxpayers who have transactions that may be difficult to detect via standard ways of information reporting if this level of reporting is implemented.

It is clear that the Internal Revenue Service is committed to resolving the tax consequences of transactions involving digital assets, as seen by the issuance of Form 1099-DA. According to the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), the purpose of mandating that brokers record these transactions is to guarantee that taxpayers correctly report their income and pay the required taxes on their activities involving digital assets.

The rising significance of cryptocurrencies, nonfungible tokens (NFTs), and stablecoins in the financial landscape is reflected in the decision made by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to list these digital assets as reportable assets on Form 1099-DA. Having a comprehensive grasp of the digital asset transactions that taxpayers engage in is very necessary for the authorities in charge of taxation, given the continued growth in popularity and utilisation of cryptocurrencies.

Among the crucial data elements that are captured by the draft form are the date of acquisition, the date of sale, the proceeds, and the cost basis of the crypto assets that were sold. For taxpayers to correctly submit their cryptocurrency tax filings, it is vital for them to have these information. Furthermore, the form has a checkbox labelled “unhosted wallet provider,” which serves as an indication that the Internal Revenue Service intends to include unhosted wallets within the definition of a broker. When generating unhosted wallets or engaging with platforms using unhosted wallets, users may be required to give know-your-customer (KYC) information as a result of this shift.

Despite the fact that the draft form offers helpful insights into the reporting requirements, it is essential to keep in mind that it may be subject to modifications as a result of the input that would be received during the comment period. Through its website, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) welcomes members of the public to provide feedback on draft or final versions of forms, instructions, or publications.

As a conclusion, the issuance of Form 1099-DA by the Internal Revenue Service represents an important milestone in the process of regulating and reporting revenue from transactions involving digital assets. Through the requirement that brokers record these transactions, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) hopes to promote compliance and guarantee that taxpayers appropriately report the income they get from digital assets. In order to prevent possible fines or audits, it is essential for taxpayers to be knowledgeable about their reporting responsibilities for digital assets, since the landscape of digital assets continues to undergo continuous change.

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